Written in English
|Statement||by Mary E. Pocock.|
|LC Classifications||ML3836 .P63 1991a|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||ix, 152 leaves :|
|Number of Pages||152|
The effects of harmony and rhythm on expectancy formation were studied in two experiments. In both studies, we generated musical passages consisting of a melodic line accompanied by four harmonic (chord) events. These sequences varied in their harmonic content, the rhythmic periodicity of the three context chords prior to the final chord, and the ending time of the final chord by: With reference to melodic expectation, the memory of a specific implication connects to a learned style-structural realization situated within a specific durational, metric, and harmonic context. influence of melodic structure, expectancy in music also reflects the influence of rhythmic and metric structure (Jones, ; Jones & Boltz, ) as well as harmonic structure (Bharucha, ; Schmuckler, ). The present research examines the cognitive mecha-nisms underlying the generation of melodic expecta-tions. The first and the third complexity measures and the musical style of excerpts were determined by the first author using criteria described in the article, while the entropies were computed by computer using Shannon’s formula, after the harmonic progression was determined.
A model of melodic expectation is proposed. The model assigns ratings to the expectedness of melodic events. The ratings depend on the hierarchic implementation of three primary factors stability, proximity, and direction and one secondary factor mobility. The model explicitly links expectancy ratings to aspects of listeners experiences of tension in melody. The influence of harmonic complexity on melodic expectations one of the three levels of harmonic three levels of harmonic complexity were distinguished by the degree of . Other preferences and expectations, particularly those related to melodic contour, may reflect more general perceptual principles related to the formation of auditory streams, and may not be specific to melodies or even music (Bregman, ; Huron, ; Schellenberg, Adachi, Purdy, & McKinnon, ). One way to test whether melodic contour. A harmonic interval is what you get when you play two notes at the same time.. A melodic interval is what you get when you play two notes separately in time, one after the other.. The identity of an interval, and this goes for both harmonic and melodic intervals, is determined by two things.
those notes still having a multiple melodic analysis are disambiguated. Next, each of these steps are described with more tech-nical details. Melodic analysis The melodic analysis tags each note as harmonic or non-harmonic-tone (NHT) based only on the melodic infor-mation, leaving aside any harmonic vertical information. into the context, and ultimately reveal how melodic or harmonic events influence formal outcomes in Ravel’s chamber works that draw together previous approaches as seen in Kaminsky, Heinzelmann, and others. For purposes of the following discussion, essential harmonic deceptions or dissonances are problematized within the expectations set. algorithm influence the movement of each melody. As we will explain in the Melody Generation section, the notes rely on attraction to harmonic anchoring tones. In stable conditions, melodies move towards the harmonic tones. As listeners, we have expectations about the . We conclude that implicit harmonic structure plays an important role—not currently recognized by either model—in determining human melodic expectations. Other types of hierarchical structure such as an ability to segregate melodic streams (see Section ) also likely play a role in human melodic expectations, and again are not captured by either of the models considered here.